Digital Design and Fabrication / Energy and Sustainability / Modeling and Visualization

the Digital Building Lab at Georgia Tech links researchers with forward-looking industry partners to champion
advancements in the designed and built environment

Godfried Augenbroe

Godfried Augenbroe

Professor of Architecture

Phone: (404) 894-1686Office location: 247 4th Street Room 265

Professor Augenbroe received an MSc cum laude in Civil Engineering from TU Delft in the Netherlands in 1975. During the early part of his academic career in Europe he pioneered a commercial finite element toolbox for building simulation, and managed national and international projects on energy saving, technologies for engineering interoperability and semantic building product models. In the mid eighties, he was one of the lead contractors of the government funded Building Information Modeling (BIM) effort in the Netherlands.

Daniel Baerlecken

Daniel Baerlecken

Assistant Professor

Phone: (404) 259-1501Office location: 247 4th Street Room 366 A

Daniel Baerlecken is Visiting Assistant Professor at Georgia Institute of Technology. He teaches digital design and fabrication. His research focuses on the exploration of the algorithmic potential of computing and of the resulting innovative architectural forms.

Charles Eastman

Charles Eastman


Director, Digital Building Laboratory

Phone: (404) 894-3477Office location: 247 Fourth Street NW

Professor Eastman's teaching and research is in the areas of Building Information Modeling, solids and parametric modeling, engineering databases, and product models and interoperability. He also is an active researcher in design cognition and cognitive science.

Educational Background

B Arch, M Arch, University of California, Berkeley

Building Information Modeling

The development of strong parametric modeling systems for design and fabrication in the construction industry are revolutionizing the methods, tools and practices throughout architecture and construction.

  • Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R. and Liston, K. (2008) BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Managers, Designers, Engineers and Contractors, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey.

Papers and Conferences

  • Sacks, R., Kaner, I., Eastman, C.M., and Jeong, Y-S., (2010). ‘The Rosewood Experiment – Building Information Modeling and Interoperability for Architectural Precast Facades’, Automation in Construction 19 (2010) 419–432.
  • Chuck Eastman, Jin-kook Lee, Hugo Sheward, Paola Sanguinetti, Yeon-suk Jeong, Jaemin Lee and Sherif Abdelmohsen  (2009) Automated Assessment of Early Concept Designs, Mar 6 2009 Architectural Design John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (p 52-57)
  • Eastman Charles M. and Rafael Sacks. (2008) Relative Productivity in the AEC Industries in the United States for On-Site and Off-Site Activities, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 134, No. 7, July 1, 2008, 517-526.
  • Barak R, Jeong Y-K, Sacks R, and Eastman C, (2007) Unique Requirements of BIM for Cast-in-place Reinforced Concrete, ASCE Workshop on Computing in Civil Engineering 2007, Pittsburgh, PA June 27.
  • C.M. Eastman, R. Sacks, Y.-S. Jeong, I. Kaner, Building Information Modeling (BIM) for Precast Concrete, National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington DC, USA, 2007, p. 212
  • Eastman, C.M. (2004) University and industry support of research in support of BIM, Report on Integrated Practice, M. Broshar, N. Strong, D. Friedman (eds.), American Institute of Architects, Washington D.C. (2006).
  • Eastman, C.M. (2004) Invited Keynote Presentation, New Methods of Architecture and Building, Fabrication: Proceedings ACADIA 2004 Conference, Toronto, CA


Building Product Models

Developing interoperability between various applications with emphasis on various building models, including IFC and CIS/2; developing "next generation" integration and data exchange technology; integration process coordination with data exchange.

  • Eastman C., Building Product Models: Computer Environments Supporting Design and Construction, CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, (1999).

Papers and Conferences:

  • Eastman, C. M.; Jeong, Y.-S.; Sacks, R.; Kaner, I.(2010) Exchange Model and Exchange Object Concepts for Implementation of National BIM Standards. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, Jan/Feb 2010, Vol. 24 Issue 1, 25-34,
  • Barak R, Jeong Y-S, Sacks R, Eastman C, (2009) Unique Requirements of Building Information Modeling for Cast-in-Place Reinforced Concrete, Journal of Computing In Civil Engineering March/April 2009, pp. 64-74.
  • Jeong Y-S, Eastman C.M, Sacks R. and Kaner I. (2009) Benchmark tests for BIM data exchanges of precast concrete, Automation in Construction 18, 4, July 2009, pp 469-484
  • Lee, Ghang, Charles M. Eastman, and Rafael Sacks. (2007) Eliciting Information for Product Modeling using Process Modeling. Data & Knowledge Engineering 62 (2): 292-307.
  • Lee G, Eastman C, (2007) Twelve Design Patterns for Integrating and Normalizing Product Model Schemas, Comp-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engr. 22, pp. 153-171.
  • Yang D, and Eastman C, (2007) A Rule-based Subset Generation Method for Product Data Models”, Comp-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engr. 22, pp. 133-148.
  • Eastman C., F. Wang, S-J You, D. Yang (2005) Deployment of An AEC Industry Sector Product Model, Computer-Aided Design 37:11, pp. 1214–1228
  • Eastman, C., Lee, G., and Sacks, R., (2002) “Deriving a Product Model from Process Models”, Concurrent Engineering 2002, Cranfield U., July 27-29, 2002
  • Eastman, C.M., T.S. Jeng, [1999], “A database supporting evolutionary product model development for design”, Automation and Construction, 8:3, pp. 305-324.
  • Augenbroe, G. and C. Eastman [1998] "Product Modeling Strategies for Today and the Future", The Life-Cycle of Construction Innovations: CIB Working Conference, June 3-5, Stockholm Sweden.
  • R. Stouffs, R. Krishnamurty,and C. Eastman [1996],  "A Formal Structure for Nonequivalent Solid Representations", IFIP Knowledge Intensive CAD Workshop,  Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, September, (1996).
  • Eastman, C.[1994],"A Data Model for Design Knowledge, in Knowledge-Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design, G. Carrera and Y. Kalay (eds.), Elsevier Press pp. 95-122.
  • Eastman, C.M. [1993] "Conceptual Modeling in Design", in Fundamental Developments in Computer- Aided Geometric Modeling, L. Piegl (ed.), Academic Press, 185-202.
  • Eastman, C. S. Chase, and H. Assal, [1993], "System Architecture for Computer Integration of Design and Construction Knowledge", Automation in Construction, 2:2, pp. 95-107..
  • Eastman, C. M., A. Bond and S. Chase [1991] "A Data Model for Engineering Design Databases", 1st International Conf. on A.I. in Design, Edinburgh, Scotland, June 1991.


Product Model Repositories

Future architects and engineers will rely on product model repositories as their project database. There is much work to be done to make such repositories easy to use, intuitive and effective. This includes graphical interface development, query methods and transaction schemes, as examples.
Papers and Conferences

  • You S-J, Yang D, and Eastman C, (2004)  Relational DB Implementation of STEP based product model, CIB T6S7 Information technology in construction, CIB International Congress, Toronto, May 5-7, 2004.
  • Jeng, T.S., and C. Eastman, [1998] "Database Architecture for Design Collaboration", Automation and Construction, 7:6 ,pp. 475-484.
  • Jacobsen, K. , T.S. Jeng, C. Eastman, [1997], "Information management in Creative Engineering Design and Capabilities of Database Transaction", Automation and Construction, 7:1,pp. 55-69.
  • C. Eastman (1993) "A Data Model for Design Knowledge", in Knowledge-Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design, G. Carrera and Y. Kalay (eds.), Elsevier Press, N.Y., [1993], pp. 95-122, from CERC Conference on A.I. Techniques in Architectural Design, Rome Italy,  May, 1993.
  • C. Eastman and A. Kutay, "Transaction Management in Design Databases" in Sriram, D., R. Logcher and S. Fukada (eds.) Computer-Aided Cooperative Product Development, Springer-Verlag, N.Y., [1991].


Next Generation Design Tools

With a new generation of architectural and building industry design tools, especially based on parametric design and rule-based design, there is a need for critical assessment, improved specification, and the development of advanced prototypes.
Papers and Conferences

  • Lee G, Eastman C, Taunk T, Ho C-H, (2010) Usability Principles and Best Practices for the Interface of Complex 3D Architectural Design and Engineering Tools, Int. J. Human-Computer Studies 68 (2010) 90–104.
  • Eastman C, Lee J-M, Jeong Y-S, Lee J-K, (2009) Automatic rule-based checking of building designs, Automation in Construction 18, November, 2009, pp 1011-1033.
  • Sacks R., Eastman C.M. and Lee G. and Orndorff D, (2005) A Target Benchmark of the Impact of Three-Dimensional Parametric Modeling in Precast Construction, PCI Journal, July-August pp. 136-139.
  • Sacks R., Eastman C.M. and Lee G. (2004) “Parametric 3D Modeling in Building Construction with Examples from Precast Concrete”, Automation in Construction, 13:3 pp. 291-312
  • Eastman,C.M.  (2004) Invited Keynote Presentations, New Methods of Architecture and Building, Fabrication: ACADIA 2004 Conference, Toronto, CA
  • Lee, G., R. Sacks, and Eastman, C., Wessman, R,. (2004) Development of an Intelligent 3D Parametric Modeling System for the North American Precast Concrete Industry: Phase II, 21th International Association for Automation and Robotics in Construction, Sept 23-25, 2002, Jeju Korea, September, 2004.
  • Eastman, C.M.  R. Sacks and G. Lee, (2004) Functional modeling in parametric CAD systems, in: Generative-CAD Conference, Carnegie Mellon, PA, July 12-14,2004.
  • Sacks R., Eastman C.M. and Lee G. [2003] Process Improvements in Precast Concrete Construction Using Top-down Parametric 3-D Computer Modeling, PCI Journal, 48:3, pp. 46-55.
  • Sacks R., Eastman C.M. and Lee G. (2004) Parametric 3D Modeling in Building Construction with Examples from Precast Concrete, Automation in Construction, 13 (2004) 291-312
  • Eastman, C.M., Rafael Sacks , Ghang Lee, (2002) Strategies for Realizing the Benefits of 3D Integrated Modeling of Buildings for the AEC Industry 19th International Association for Automation and Robotics in Construction, Sept 23-25, 2002, Washington D.C.


Design Cognition and Collaboration

Cognitive models of design that support tool and interface development; studies and technological support for design collaboration.

  • C. Eastman, W. Newstetter, M. McCracken eds. Design Knowing and Learning: Cognition in Design Education, Elsevier Science Press, (2000).

Papers and Conferences

  • Lo Ping Wei, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Charles M. Eastman, “On Context of Content: A Comparative Methodology Review of How HCI and Mass Communication Analyze Blogs and Social Media” for Work in Progress in CHI 2007, San Jose, April 28 – May 3
  • Ho,Chun-Heng Eastman, C. (2005)  How Representations and Strategies Influence Design Spatial Problem Solving, Symposium  on Reasoning with Mental and External Diagrams: Computational Modeling and Spatial Assistance, AAAI Spring Symposium, Technical Report SS-05-06, Stanford, March 21-13, 2005. pp. 114-120
  • Chun-Heng Ho CH, Eastman CM and Catrambone R, (2006) An investigation of 2D and 3D spatial and mathematical abilities, Design Studies, 27:4, (July) pp. 505-524
  • Lee, G., C. M. Eastman, and C. Zimring. (2003). Avoiding design errors: a case study of redesigning an architectural studio. Design Studies, 24, 411-435.
  • Eastman, C. “New Directions in Design Cognition: Studies of Representation and Recall”, in Design Knowing and Learning: Cognition in Design Education, C. Eastman, W. Newstetter, M. McCracken eds. Elsevier Science Press, (2001).
  • Eastman, C. Keynote address and paper: "Representation of Design Processes", Conference on Design Thinking, MIT April 23-25, (1999).


Design Processes

The benefits of product model repositories are that they support new more integrated design processes, integrating design with analysis, fabrication, erection and other downstream influences; processes also are the basis for supporting the definition of product data models.

  • Sanguinetti P, Eastman C, Augenbroe G, (2009) Courthouse energy evaluation: sensitivity analysis to support decision-making in concept design, Proc. Building Simulation 2009 Conference, Glasgow, pp. 1922-1929.
  • Eastman, C.M., Rafael Sacks , Ghang Lee, (2004) Strategies for Realizing the Benefits Implementing 3D Parametric Modeling  in Technical Areas of Construction – a Case Study, CIB International Conference, W78, Toronto, CA, May, 2004.
  • Sacks R., Eastman C.M. and Lee G. [2003] “Process Model Perspectives On Management and Engineering Procedures in the North American Precast/Prestressed Concrete Industry” ASCE Journal of Computing, March/April, 2004 (in press).
  • Eastman, C. Lee, G  Sacks, R (2003)  Development of a Knowledge-Rich CAD System for the North American Precast Concrete Industry, 2003 ACADIA Conference, Indianapolis, IN.
  • Sacks, R., Eastman Building Modeling Enabled Workflow Changes in Precast Concrete and Structural Steel Construction, EIA-9, 9th EuropIA International Conference:  E-Activities and Intelligent Support in Design and the Built Environment, Istanbul, Turkey, August 2003
  • Eastman, C., Lee, G., and Sacks, R., (2002) “A formal and  analytical approach to modeling engineering project processes” CIB Conference W-78, Arhus Denmark, June 12-14.
  • Sacks, R., Eastman, C., Lee, G., and (2002) “Process and enterprise modeling, Information management & technologies” Concurrent Engineering in Construction 2002, Berkeley, CA, July 1-2.
  • Jeng, T.S., and C. Eastman, [1998], "Design Process Management", Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 14, pp. 53-65.


Drawing Recognition

  • Developing a high level language and implementation for robust drawing recognition; drawing recognition algorithms.
  • Babalola, O. and Eastman, C.  “Semantic Modeling of Architectural Drawings”, Proc. 2Oth ACADIA Conference, Buffalo NY, Nov. (2001).

Design Management

Building Model Repositories, new processes, all allow and involve new approaches to the management of deisgn; I am interrsted in such issues as change management, review procedures, and design coordination.

  • C.Eastman and Sriram Dasu, editors, Management of Design: Engineering and Management Perspectives, Kluver Academic Pub., Boston, 1994, including the preface and chapter, “Management of Design Information Flows”, with G. Shirley.

Papers and Conferences

  • Eastman, C.M., D. S. Parker, T.S. Jeng, [1997] "Managing the Integrity of Design Data Generated by Multiple Applications: The Theory and Practice of Patching, Research in Engineering Design, 9, pp. 125-145.
  • Eastman, C. [1996] "Managing Integrity in Design Information Flows", Computer Aided Design, (May), 28:6/7, pp.551-565.


Other Books

  • Augenbroe, G. and Eastman, C eds.  Computers in Building: Proceedings of the CAADfutures'99 Conference, Kluver Academic Publishers, New York, (1999)].

Recent Courses

  • Building Information Modeling
  • Design Cognition (with Professor Craig Zimring)
  • Building Product Models and Interoperability
  • Research Seminar in Design Computing
  • Geometric and Solid Modeling Software Development
  • Databases for Engineering and Design
  • Design of Electronic Design Environments

Javier Irizarry

Javier Irizarry

Associate Professor

Director, CONECTech Lab

Phone: (404) 385-7609Fax: (404) 894-1641Office location: 500 Tenth Street NW

Dr. Javier Irizarry, P.E. is an Associate Professor in the School of Building Construction at Georgia Tech. He is the Director of the CONECTech Lab which mission is to establish the framework for developing next generation technology enhanced solutions to construction environment problems by incorporating the cognitive processes of the human component of construction operations. Dr.

Research Groups/Labs


Digital Building Laboratory (DBL)

Recent Publications

  • Irizarry, J., *Gheisari, M., *Williams, G., and Roper, K. (2014) “Ambient Intelligence Environments for Accessing Building Information: A Healthcare Facility Management Scenario”, Facilities, Vol. 32 Iss: 3/4 120-138
  •  *Zhou, Z., Irizarry, J., and Li, Q. (2014) “Using Network Theory to Explore the Complexity of Subway Construction Accident Network (SCAN) for Promoting Safety Management” Journal Safety Science, (64) 127-136
  • *Parvaresh Karan, E., Sivakumar, R., Irizarry, J., and Guhathakurta, S. (2013) “Digital Modeling of Construction Site Terrain using Remotely Sensed Data and Geographic Information Systems Analyses”, ASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 10.1061/ (ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000822.
  • * Zhou, Z., Irizarry, J., Li, Q., and Wu, W. (2013). "Using Grounded Theory Methodology to Explore the Information of Precursors Based on Subway Construction Incidents." J. Manage. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000226 (Jun. 3, 2013).
  • Irizarry, J., *Gheisari (2013) “Situation Awareness (SA), A Qualitative User-Centered Information Needs Assessment Approach”, International Journal of Construction Management, Vol. 13 No.3, 35-53
  • *Zhou, Z., Irizarry, J., and Li, Q. (2013) “Applying advanced technology to improve safety management in the construction industry: a literature review”, Construction Management and Economics, 1-17, 606-622
  • *Florez, L., Castro, D., and Irizarry, J. (2013) “Measuring Sustainability Perceptions of Construction Materials” Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management, Volume 13, No. 2, pages 217-234
  • Irizarry, J., *Gheisari, M., Meadati, P., and *Solfagarian, S. (2013) “Human Computer Interaction Modes for Construction Education Applications: Experimenting with Small Format Interactive Displays”, International Journal of Construction Education and Research, Volume: 9, Issue: 02, pages 83 – 101.
  • Irizarry, J., *Parvaresh Karan, E., and Jalaei, F. (2013) “Integrating BIM and GIS to improve the visual monitoring of construction supply chain management”, Journal of Automation in Construction, 31, 241-254
  • Irizarry, J., *Gheisari, M., Williams, G., and Walker, B. (2012) “InfoSpot: A mobile Augmented Reality method for accessing building information through a situation awareness approach”, Journal of Automation in Construction, 33, 11-23
  • Irizarry, J., and *Parvaresh Karan, E. (2012) “Optimizing Location of Tower Cranes on Construction Sites Through GIS and BIM Integration” Journal of Information Technology in Construction Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), Vol. 17, pg. 351-366
  • Meadati, P., Liou, F.S., Irizarry, J., and Akhnoukh, A.K. (2012) “Enhancing Visual Learning in Construction Education using BIM” International Journal of Polytechnic Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2,
  • Irizarry, J., *Gheisari, M., and Walker, B. N. (2012) “Usability Assessment of Drone Technology as Safety Inspection Tools,” Journal of Information Technology in Construction, Vol. 17, pg. 194-212
  • *Zolfagharian, S., *Nourbakhsh, M., Hussein Mydin, S., Mohamad Zin, R., and Irizarry, J. (2012) “A Conceptual Method of Constructability Improvement”, IACSIT International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 4, 456-459
  • *Nourbakhsh, M., *Zolfagharian, S., Zin, R.M., and Irizarry, J. (2012) “Affordable Software for Collaboration, Document Management, and on-site Information Management in Small- and Medium-sized Construction Companies”, IACSIT International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 4, 460-463
  • *Florez, L., Irizarry, J., Castro-Lacouture, D., Abdollahipour, S., and Jeong, H., (2012) “Feasibility of Implementing a Computer-Assisted PCC Rehabilitation Decision Support System in Georgia and Oklahoma” International Journal of Construction Education and Research, Vol. 8, 281-300
  • Irizarry, J., *Gheisari, M., Meadati, P., and *Solfagarian, S. (2012) “Human Computer Interaction Modes for Construction Education Applications: Experimenting with Small Format Interactive Displays”, International Journal of Construction Education and Research,
  • Irizarry, J., *Zolfagharian, S., *Nourbakhsh, M., Mohamad Zin, R., Jusoff, K., and Zakaria, R. (2012) “Integrated Sustainable Management for Construction Industry” Journal of Information Technology in Construction, Vol. 17, 162-178.
  • *Nourbakhsh, M., Mohamad Zin, R., Irizarry, J., *Zolfagharian, S., and *Gheisari, M. (2012) “Mobile Application Prototype for On-site Information Management in Construction Industry.” Journal of Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, Vol. 19 Issue: 5, 474-494
  • Irizarry, J., Meadati, P., Aknoukh, A., and Barham, W. (2012) “Exploring Applications of Building Information Models for Enhancing Visualization and Information Access in Engineering and Construction Education Environments.” International Journal of Construction Education and Research, Volume: 8, Issue: 02, pages 119 - 145
  • *Nourbakhsh, M., Mohamad Zin, R., Hussein Mydin, S., *Zolfagharian, S., Irizarry, J., and Golzarpoor, H., (2012) “Relative Importance of Key Performance Indicators of Construction Projects towards Buildability at Design Stage” Advanced Materials Research (ISSN: 1022-6680) Vol. 446-449 pp. 340-344,

*denotes student/advisee

Recent Courses

  • BC 8833 Virtual Construction Operations Analysis
  • BC 8933 Sustainable Construction Technologies
  • BC 2610 Construction Technology 1
  • BC 2620 Construction Technology 2
  • BC 3630 Project Management 1
  • BC 4600 Project Management 2
  • BC 4630 Senior Capstone

Dissertations Supervised

  • Masoud Gheisari, Topic "An Ambient Intelligent Environment for Accessing Building Information in Facility Management Operations; A Healthcare Facility Scenario" December 2013
  • Samaneh Zolfagharian, Topic “A Model for Automated Safety Planning” Master Student, University Technology of Malaysia (UTM), May 2011
  • Angelica Ospina-Alvarado, “BIM Enabled Approach to Scheduling and Cost Automation: Impact to Project Integration,” Ph.D. student, College of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology, May 2011.
  • Mehdi Nourbakhsh,Topic “Development of Mobile Application for on-site information Management and Progress Monitoring”, Master Student, University Technology of Malaysia (UTM),December 2010
  • Laura Florez-Perez, “Measuring Sustainability Perceptions of Construction Materials, Master Student, College of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology, August 2010

Current PhD Advisees

Ebrahim P. Karan

Mehdi Nourbakhsh

Samaneh Zolfagharian

Daniel Castro

Daniel Castro

Associate Professor of Building Construction

Chair, School of Building Construction

Phone: (404) 385-6964Fax: (404) 894-1641Office location: 500 Tenth Street NW


Research Ambitions
My overall area of interest consists of defining and deploying evaluation protocols for technology innovations in the built environment. I intend to continue addressing relevant problems in the construction industry, such as the uncertainty of adopting innovative technologies which are intended to improve energy efficiency and construction processes. My focus will be on innovative technologies for sustainable construction, which concentrates on the feasibility of state-of-art fuel cells or net-zero bioenergy alternatives for residential construction, as well uses for material selection and energy system retrofitting.  

Research Groups/Labs
Affiliated to the Digital Building Laboratory.

Recent Publications
Journal Articles

  • Florez, L., Irizarry, J., Castro-Lacouture, D., Abdollahipour, S., and Jeong, H. (2012) “Feasibility of Implementing a Computer-Assisted PCC Rehabilitation Decision Support System in Georgia and Oklahoma,” International Journal of Construction Education and Research, Vol. 8, 281-300.
  • Zhou, H. and Castro-Lacouture, D. (2011). “Key Performance Indicators for Infrastructure Sustainability –A Comparative Study between China and the United States,” Advanced Building Materials,  Vols. 250-253 (2011), pp 2984-2992.
  • Ospina-Alvarado, A. and Castro-Lacouture, D. (2010). “Holistic Analysis of Fuel Cells for Residential Construction in the Rural United States,” Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management, Vol. 10 No. 1, p. 60-74.
  • Juan, Y-K., Roper, K.O., Castro-Lacouture, D., and Kim. J.H. (2010). “Optimal Decision Making on Urban Renewal Projects,” Management Decision, Vol. 48 No. 2, p. 207-224.
  • Juan, Y-K., Castro-Lacouture, D., and Roper, K. (2010). “A Hybrid Decision Support Approach Based on Multiple Objectives and Resources for Assessing the Relocation Plan of Dangerous Hillside Aggregations,” European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 202 No. 1, p. 265-272.
  • Castro-Lacouture, D., Süer, G.A., Gonzalez-Joaqui, J., and Yates, J.K. (2009). “Fuzzy Mathematical Models for Construction Project Scheduling with Time, Cost, and Material Restrictions,” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, Vol. 135 No. 10, p. 1096-1104.
  • Castro-Lacouture, D. and Roper K. (2009). “Renewable Energy in US Federal Buildings,” Facilities, Vol. 27 No. 5, p. 173-186.
  • Castro-Lacouture, D. Sefair, J.A., Florez, L., and Medaglia, A.L. (2009). “Optimization Model for the Selection of Materials Using a LEED-based Green Building Rating System in Colombia,” Building and Environment, Vol. 44 No. 6, p. 1162-1170.
  • Juan, Y-K., Perng, Y-H., Castro-Lacouture, D. and Lu, K-S. (2009). “Housing Refurbishment Contractors Selection Based on a Hybrid Fuzzy-QFD Approach,” Automation in Construction, Vol. 18 No. 1, p. 139-144.
  • Augenbroe, G., Castro-Lacouture, D., and Ramkrishnan, K. (2009). “Decision Model for Energy Performance Improvements in Existing Buildings,” Journal of Engineering Design and Technology, Special Issue on Green Construction, Vol. 7 No. 1, p. 21 – 36.
  • Juan, Y-K., Kim. J.H., Roper, K., and Castro-Lacouture, D. (2009). “Genetic Algorithm-Based Decision Support System for Housing Condition Assessment and Refurbishment Strategies,” Automation in Construction, Vol. 18 No. 1, p. 394-401.
  • Castro-Lacouture, D., Ospina-Alvarado, A.M., and Roper, K.O. (2008) “AEC+P+F Integration with Green Project Delivery and Lean Focus,” Journal of Green Building, Vol. 3 No. 4, p.  154-169.
  • Tatari, O., Castro-Lacouture, D., and Skibniewski, M.J. (2008). “Performance Evaluation of Construction Enterprise Resource Planning Systems,” Journal of Management in Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 24 No. 4, p. 198-206.
  • Garner, B., Richardson, K., and Castro-Lacouture, D. (2008). “Design-Build Project Delivery in Military Construction: Approach to Best Value Procurement,” Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value, Vol. 1 No. 1, p. 33-47.
  • Castro-Lacouture, D. and Ramkrishnan, K. (2008). “Fuzzy Logic Method for Measuring Building Quality,” Journal of Quality, Vol. 15 No. 2, p. 117-129.
  • Tatari, O., Castro-Lacouture, D., and Skibniewski, M.J. (2007). “Current State of Construction Enterprise Information Systems: Survey Research,” Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management, Vol. 7 No. 4, p. 310-319.
  • Bosscher, P., Williams II, R. L., Bryson, L. S., and Castro-Lacouture, D. (2007). "Cable-Suspended Robotic Contour Crafting System,” Automation in Construction, Vol.17 No. 1, p. 45-55.
  • Castro-Lacouture, D., Medaglia, A.L., and Skibniewski, M.J. (2007). “Supply Chain Optimization Tool for Purchasing Decisions in B2B Construction Marketplaces,” Automation in Construction, Vol. 16 No. 5, p. 569-575.
  • Medaglia, A.L., Cohen, M., and Castro-Lacouture, D. (2006). “Optimizing B2B Transactions Using the Marketplace Competitive Analyzer,” International Journal of Management Science and Engineering Management, Vol. 1 No. 1, p. 37-46.
  • Castro-Lacouture, D. and Skibniewski, M.J. (2006). “Implementing a B2B e-Work System to the Approval Process of Rebar Design and Estimation,” Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 20 No. 1, p. 28-37.


Book Chapters

  • Castro-Lacouture, D. (2009). “Construction Automation,” in Handbook of Automation, Shimon Nof (Ed.), Berlin: Springer.
  • Ospina-Alvarado, A.M., Castro-Lacouture, D., and Roper, K.O.  (2010). “Relationship Between AEC+P+F Integration and Sustainability,” in Industrialised, Integrated, Intelligent Sustainable Construction (I3CON), Ian Wallis, Lesya Bilan, Mike Smith and Abdul Samad Kazi (Eds.), London: BSRIA and I3CON.

Recent Funded Projects

  • September 2012 – August 2016, Co-Principal Investigator with Ben Stuart, Guy Riefler and Ariaster Chimeli, Principal Investigator on the Georgia Tech side with Charles Rudolph and Perry Yang -  National Science Foundation (SEP Program) - “Sustainable Housing through Holistic Waste Stream Management and Algal Cultivation”
  • May 2011- May 2013, Co-Principal Investigator with Javier Irizarry - Georgia Department of Transportation - “Evaluation of Data Requirements for Computerized Constructability Analysis of Pavement Rehabilitation Projects”
  • August 2008 - July 2011, Pricipal Investigator - Construction Sciences Research Foundation - “BIM Enabled Approach to Scheduling and Cost Automation”
  • August 2008 - July 2010, Co-Principal Investigator Hyung-Seok Jeong and Javier Irizarry - Oklahoma Transportation Center - “Evaluation of Construction Strategies for PCC Pavements”
  • August 2006 - August 2009, Co-Principal Investigator with G. Botte and S. Miller - National Science Foundation (PATH Program) - “Feasibility of Developing Self Sustainable-Ammonia Power Houses”
  • September 2007 - September 2008, Co-Principal Investigator with J. Irizarry and C. Arboleda - Georgia Department of Transportation - “Constructability and Scheduling of PCC Pavements”


Recent Courses

  • BC 8000 – Ph.D. Seminar, Spring 2011-2012.
  • COA 8833 – Special Topics: Zero Energy Housing: Design, Simulation and Feasibility, Fall 2008, Spring 2010-2012.
  • BC 3600 – Construction Cost Management, Fall 2006 – 2012.
  • BC 8823 – Special Topics: Advanced Cost Management, Spring 2010.
  • BC 6025 – Construction Management, Spring 2010, Fall 2009, Spring 2009.
  • BC8813 – Special Topics: Sustainable Energy in A/E/C, Fall 2009
  • BC8823/CEE8813 – Special Topics: Construction Best Practices, Fall 2008
  • BC 6650 – Advanced Project Management,  Spring 2008

Dissertations Supervised

  • Valerie Riecke-Smith, “Impact to Alternative Contracting Methods Using Multivariate Models in the Regulatory Environment,” Ph.D. Dissertation, College of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology, graduated August 2008.
  • Angelica Ospina-Alvarado, “Unified Framework for Construction Project Integration and its Association with Project Performance,” Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Building Construction, Georgia Institute of Technology, graduated Spring 2011.
  • Laura Florez-Perez, “Sustainable Workforce Scheduling in Construction Program Management,” Ph.D. student, School of Building Construction, Georgia Institute of Technology, expected to graduate 2013.

Current PhD Students

  • Laura Florez
  • Marcel Granier-Phelps
  • Laura Capps

Baabak Ashuri

Baabak Ashuri

Associate Professor

Director, Economics of the Sustainable Built Environment (ESBE) Lab

Phone: (404) 385-7608Fax: (404) 894-1641Office location: 500 Tenth Street NW


Research Ambitions

The mission of the Economics of the Sustainable Built Environment (ESBE) Lab, which I funded at Georgia Tech in fall 2009, is to develop the state-of-the-art financial models for enhancing efficient and effective investments in built environment assets. Avoiding under- or over-investment contributes directly to the objective of sustainable development, which aims to maximize future benefits considering the resources used. Examples of Research Initiatives are:

  • Energy-efficient green buildings: Flexible Technologies and Systems for Green-Convertible Buildings. This project is a timely effort to extensively identify, model, and analyze flexibility in sustainable building design. Development of a flexibility identification framework will provide a novel approach for building designers and retrofitters to enhance the future utilization of renewable energy technologies, such as PV Systems, and facilitate the conversion of existing buildings to energy-efficient buildings.
  • Transportation systems: Economic Analysis of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Highway Projects under Traffic Uncertainty. Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) have often failed primary due to the lack of proper financial analysis and inappropriate risk sharing mechanisms between public and private sectors. In this research program, we use the real option theory to evaluate the financial performance of PPPs under evolving tolled-road revenue uncertainty.
  • Healthcare planning and design: Enhancing the Value of Healthcare Facilities by Flexible Design and Planning. Uncertainty about healthcare environment is considerably important for healthcare infrastructure planners and hospital designers. Incorporating appropriate flexible features in planning and design of healthcare facilities is an effective strategy to manage uncertainty about the healthcare environment.

Research Groups/Labs

Published Books and Parts of Books

(1)        Ashuri, B., Rouse W.B., and Augenbroe G. (2007). “Different Models of Work in the Modern Services Enterprise.” Work, workflow, and information systems, IOS Press, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Published Journal Papers (Refereed)

(2)        Ashuri, B., Shahandashti, S.M., and Lu, J. (2012). “Empirical Tests for Identifying Leading Indicators of ENR Construction Cost Index.” Construction Management and Economics, 30(11), 917-927.

(3)        Ashuri, B. and Tavakolan, M. (2012). “A Fuzzy Enabled Hybrid Genetic Algorithm‐Particle Swarm Optimization Approach to Solve Time‐Cost‐Resource Optimization (TCRO) Problems in Construction Project Planning.” ASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 138(9), 1065–1074.

(4)        Ashuri, B., Kashani, H, Molenaar, K.R., Lee, S. and Lu, J. (2012). “A Risk-neutral Pricing Approach for Evaluating BOT Highway Projects with Government Minimum Revenue Guarantee Options.” ASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 138(4), 545-557.

(5)        Ashuri, B., Lu, J., and Kashani, H. (2011). “A Real Options Framework to Evaluate Investments in Toll Road Projects Delivered under the Two-Phase Development Strategy.” Built Environment Project and Asset Management, 1(1), 14-31 (Highly Commended Award Winner at the Emerald Literati Network Awards for Excellence 2012).

(6)        Ashuri, B. and Lu, J. (2010). “Time Series Analysis of ENR Construction Cost Index.” ASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 136(11), 1227-1237.

(7)        Fard, J., Kangari, R., and Ashuri, B. (2010). “The Effects of Organizational Variables on Hospital Costs in Georgia.” International Journal of Facility Management, 1(2), 1-21.

(8)        Ashuri, B. (2010). “Valuation of Flexible Leases for Corporate Tenants Facing Uncertainty in Their Required Workspace.” International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 14(1), 49-72.

(9)        Durmus-pedini, A., and Ashuri, B. (2010). “An Overview of the Benefits and Risk Factors of Going Green in Existing Buildings.” International Journal of Facility Management, 1(1), 1-15.

(10)    Ashuri, B., Rouse W.B., and Augenbroe G. (2007). “Different Models of Work in the Modern Services Enterprise.” Information - Knowledge - Systems Management, 6(1), 25-59.

(11)    Mofid, M., Alizadegan R., Ashuri B., and Yavari A. (2001). “Computing the Kern of a General Cross-section.” Advances in Engineering Software, 32(12), 949-955.

Accepted for Publication

(12)    Kim, D. Y., Han, S. H., and Ashuri, B. “Financial Valuation of Investments in International Construction Markets: A Real Options Approach for Market Entry Decision Making.” ASEC Journal of Management in Engineering (doi:

Recent Funded Projects

  • Managing a Portfolio of Projects – Metrics for Improvement (Construction Industry Institute (CII))
  • A Systematic Approach for the Assessment of Green Opportunities for Electrical Contractors (ELECTRI International – The Foundation for Electrical Construction)
  • Best Practices for Determining Value of Research Results (The Southeast Transportation Consortium (STC) and the Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC))
  • Development of Risk Management Strategies for State DOTs to Effectively Deal with Volatile Prices of Transportation Construction Materials (Georgia Tech University Transportation Center (UTC), The US Department of Transportation/Research & Innovative Technology Administration, with the matching fund provided by the Georgia Department of Transportation)
  • How Can Innovative Project Delivery Systems Improve GDOT’s Overall Efficiency in Transportation Project Delivery? (Georgia Department of Transportation)
  • Timing of Investments in Building Solar Energy Intervention: A Real Options Framework to Evaluate Investments in Solar Energy for Buildings (Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, London, UK)
  • Recommended Guide for Next Generation of Transportation Design Build Procurement and Contracting in the State of Georgia (Georgia Department of Transportation)
  • AUMScore®, Multifamily Property Utility Benchmarking Program (American Utility Management (AUM), Inc.)
  • Time Series Analysis of ENR Construction Cost Index (Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, London, UK)
  • Presidential Undergraduate Research Award (PURA) at Georgia Tech
  • Georgia Tech’s Undergraduate Research Award for the Best Poster, Spring 2010

Recent Courses

  • BC 7100 Quantitative Methods in Construction Research – Decision Analysis & Risk Management, Fall 2008-2009
  • BC 6250 Value Management for Integrated Facility Design and Construction, spring 2010
  • BC 4610 Value Engineering & Building Economics, spring 2009
  • BC 3630 Project Management, fall 2008
  • BC 8823-BA Advanced Cost and Financial Management in AEC – Valuation of Flexibilities On/In Systems: A Real Option Approach, fall 2009

Dissertations Supervised

Masters’ Disserattions Supervised

Current PhD Advisees

  • Jian Lu
  • Hamed Kashani
  • Mothusi Phometsi
  • Stephanie C. Thompson (Mechanical Engineering)
  • Seyed Mohsen Shahandashti
  • Kia Mostaan

Matthew Swarts

Matthew Swarts

Research Scientist II

Research Faculty

Phone: (404) 894-6278Office location: 247 4th Street NW College of Architecture

Matthew Swarts is a member of the Research Faculty in the College of Architecture at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia. His formal education in the field of architecture provides him with the design sense needed for the development of custom hardware sensors, interactive systems, and software applications for capturing occupant behavior, testing human spatial perception in 3D virtual environments, running discrete-event and agent-based modeling and simulation, and performing spatial analysis within GIS and BIM.

Brian Bowen

Brian Bowen

Professor of the Practice of Building Construction

Phone: (404) 894-3880Office location: 500 Tenth Street NW

Professor Brian Bowen was appointed the College of Architecture’s first Professor of Practice in 2007. Prior to this since 2000, he supported the College’s Continuing Education Program with specific focus on courses in Managing A & E Practices and Contracting Companies. He retired in 2000 as President of Hanscomb Inc., an international construction consulting company active worldwide in managing construction projects and programs. He was trained in England as a Quantity Surveyor joining Hanscomb in 1960 in London, moving to Montreal in 1961 and then Atlanta in 1982.

Current research is directed in three main quarters:
1.    Knowing how the American construction industry evolved from colonial times for the purpose of understanding its current structures, organization, processes and methods used to deliver its projects.
2.    Studying the current industry in order to devise improvements in productivity and in value delivered to its clients.
3.    Examining methods used in other countries construction practices and processes as a potential source of ideas for improvements in the US.

Research Groups/Labs
Construction History Society of America

Recent Publications, etc.

  • “The Quantity Surveyor – MIA in the USA”, 3rd International Construction History Congress, Cottbus, Germany, May 2009
  • “Learning from Design and Construction Failures”, Moderator – Inaugural Event, Construction History Society of America, Georgia Tech, November 6th-8th 2008
  • “Construction in Florence 1400”, Dean’s Symposium – The Duomo of Santa Maria del Fiore: The Legacy of its Construction, Georgia Tech, February 9th 2008
  • “Teaching the History of Construction”, SE Chapter of Society of Architectural History, Nashville, TN, October 26th 2007
  • “Collaborative Struggles – Lessons from History”, Construction Management Association of America, Chicago, October 7th 2007
  • “The Emergence of General Contracting in 19th Century America”, National Building Museum, Washington D.C., September 27th 2007
  • “Could Big Change Happen Here”, Engineering News Record, Viewpoint, March 5th 2007 issue.
  • “Construction Cost Management”, Topic 14.4, The Architects Handbook of Professional Practice, 14th Edition, 2006.
  • “Project Management – its past, present & future”, Department of Architectural Science, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada, October 2006
  • “The American Construction Industry”, Department of Construction Management, University of Reading, England, March 2004
  • “Everything You Wanted to Know about the Construction Industry”, College of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology, Continuing Education Program – 2 day seminar delivered seven times from 2002 – 2005 in Atlanta, Chicago & Washington, DC.
  • “UNIFORMAT II - A Recommended Classification for Building Elements and Related Sitework”, co-author with Robert P. Charette and Howard Marshall, National Institute of Standards & Technology, August 1992.
  • “International Price Comparisons - Theory, Practice & Results”, Conseil International du Batiment, Montreal, Canada, May 1992.
  • Contributing Author “Construction Cost Control”, New Directions in Architectural & Engineering Practice, Howard S. Birnberg, Editor, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, NY, April 1992.
  • “Value for Money - The Elusive Search for Equilibrium in Design & Construction”, Association of Physical Plant Administrators, Orlando, FL, July 1991.
  • “Elemental Cost Classification Standard for Building Design”, American Association of Cost Engineers annual meeting, Seattle, WA, June 1991.
  • “Value Management in the North American Construction Industry”, 2nd European Value Management Conference, Paris, France, October 1990.
  • “Building a Better Bottom Line - Cost Estimating, Analysis & Control”, two-day workshop for American Institute of Architects, 1988 & 1989.
  • Cost Control Conference for Architects - Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania, October 1984.
  • “Have we Abdicated the Leadership Role?” - SMPS Conference, Washington D.C., August 1984.
  • “Cost Containment to Avoid Budget Cost Overruns”, Construction Failure Conference - New York, New York, March 1984.
  • “Cyclical Renewal or Deferred Maintenance - The Costs and Benefits”, Southern Region Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities & Colleges, Morgantown, WV, October 1983.
  • “Computers and the Search for an Accurate Estimate”, Computer/Graphics in the Building Process Conference, Washington D.C., April 1983.
  • “Life Cycle Costing & Value Engineering - New Frontiers for the Quantity Surveyor?” Commonwealth Association of Surveyors & Land Economics Conference, Ottawa, September 1981.
  • “Building Cost Data - A case for a national building cost information system”, Engineering Foundation Conference, Henniker, New Hampshire, August 1980.
  • “Energy Economics and Life Cycle Costing”, series of 15, one-day seminars presented in most major Canadian cities and sponsored by the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada,1980-81.

Recent Courses
COA 4010 & COA 6010 – History of the Construction Industry 2006 -2011

Jonathan Shaw

Jonathan Shaw

Research Scientist II

Phone: (404) 894-0528Office location: 210 Hinman Research Building 723 Cherry Street NW

Jonathan Shaw is a Research Scientist II in the College of Architecture's Digital Building Lab. He holds an M.S. degree in Design Computing from the Georgia Institute of Technology, as well as a B.S. in Mathematics and a B.A. in Studio Art. Jonathan is an instructor of two graduate level courses on Online Visualization Environments in the College of Architecture.

Athanassios Economou

Athanassios Economou

Associate Professor

Phone: (404) 894-2073Office location: 247 4th Street Mez 6

Dr. Athanassios Economou is Associate Professor in the College of Architecture at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Dr. Economou teaching and research is in the areas of shape grammars, parametric design, computer aided design and discrete mathematics and design (combinatorics, symmetry, proportion). Recent funded research projects include the shape grammar for Federal Courthouses (Federal Courthouse Typology; 2010-2015; $1,071,038) and a web-based database for the US Courthouses (CourtsWeb, 2007-2010; $531,000).